Go语言 你可能不知道的十个技巧

abv123456789 · · 10489 次点击 · · 开始浏览    
这是一个创建于 的文章,其中的信息可能已经有所发展或是发生改变。

1、匿名结构体

全局组合

var config struct {// 定义一个用于全局配置结构体
    APIKey      string
    OAuthConfig oauth.Config
}
config.APIKey = "BADC0C0A"

数据模板

data := struct {//匿名结构体的定义
  Title string
  Users []*User
}{//同时初始化
  title,
  users,
}
err := tmpl.Execute(w, data)

(比 map[string]interface{} 消耗更小和更安全)

测试表(用作测试数据构造)

var indexRuneTests = []struct {
  s    string
  rune rune
  out  int
}{
  {"a A x", 'A', 2},
  {"some_text=some_value", '=', 9},
  {"☺a", 'a', 3},
  {"a☻☺b", '☺', 4},
}

嵌套加锁

var hits struct {
  sync.Mutex
  n int
}
hits.Lock()
hits.n++//十对“n”的操作是安全的
hits.Unlock()

2、嵌套结构体

反序列化深层嵌套的json

{"data": {"children": [
  {"data": {
      "title": "The Go homepage",
      "url": "http://golang.org/"
  }},
  ...
]}}
type Item struct {
  Title string
  URL   string
}
type Response struct {
  Data struct {
      Children []struct {
          Data Item
      }
  }
}

3、godoc命令,输出package的文档注释

% godoc sync Mutex

输出

PACKAGE

package sync
    import "sync"

TYPES

type Mutex struct {
    // contains filtered or unexported fields
}
    A Mutex is a mutual exclusion lock. Mutexes can be created as part of
    other structures; the zero value for a Mutex is an unlocked mutex.

func (m *Mutex) Lock()
    Lock locks m. If the lock is already in use, the calling goroutine
    blocks until the mutex is available.

func (m *Mutex) Unlock()
    Unlock unlocks m. It is a run-time error if m is not locked on entry to
    Unlock.

    A locked Mutex is not associated with a particular goroutine. It is
    allowed for one goroutine to lock a Mutex and then arrange for another
    goroutine to unlock it.

4、godoc -src 命令

% godoc -src sync Mutex

输出

// A Mutex is a mutual exclusion lock.
// Mutexes can be created as part of other structures;
// the zero value for a Mutex is an unlocked mutex.
type Mutex struct {
    state int32
    sema  uint32
}

未导出的元素也将显示!

5、获取指定域名下的包

go get camlistore.org/pkg/netutil go help remote 可查看更详细的信息.

6、模拟一个文件系统

获取到的包里,代码访问了文件系统,但是测试时不希望真正访问磁盘

var fs fileSystem = osFS{}

type fileSystem interface {
  Open(name string) (file, error)
  Stat(name string) (os.FileInfo, error)
}

type file interface {
  io.Closer
  io.Reader
  io.ReaderAt
  io.Seeker
  Stat() (os.FileInfo, error)
}

// osFS 实现接口filesystem,并访问本地磁盘.
type osFS struct{}

func (osFS) Open(name string) (file, error)        { return os.Open(name) }
func (osFS) Stat(name string) (os.FileInfo, error) { return os.Stat(name) }

7、方法表达式

type T struct {}
func (T) Foo(s string) { println(s) }

var fn func(T, string) = T.Foo//将方法赋值给一个方法变量

os/exec中的实际例子:

func (c *Cmd) stdin() (f *os.File, err error)
func (c *Cmd) stdout() (f *os.File, err error)
func (c *Cmd) stderr() (f *os.File, err error)
type F func(*Cmd) (*os.File, error)
for _, setupFd := range []F{(*Cmd).stdin, (*Cmd).stdout, (*Cmd).stderr} {
  fd, err := setupFd(c)
  if err != nil {
      c.closeDescriptors(c.closeAfterStart)
      c.closeDescriptors(c.closeAfterWait)
      return err
  }
  c.childFiles = append(c.childFiles, fd)
}

8、使用统一个Channel发送和接收消息

package main

import "fmt"

var battle = make(chan string)

func warrior(name string, done chan struct{}) {
    select {
    case opponent := <-battle:
        fmt.Printf("%s beat %s\n", name, opponent)
    case battle <- name:
        // I lost :-(
    }
    done <- struct{}{}
}

func main() {
    done := make(chan struct{})
    langs := []string{"Go", "C", "C++", "Java", "Perl", "Python"}
    for _, l := range langs { go warrior(l, done) }
    for _ = range langs { <-done }
}

9、使用channel的close发送广播

func waiter(i int, block, done chan struct{}) {
    time.Sleep(time.Duration(rand.Intn(3000)) * time.Millisecond)
    fmt.Println(i, "waiting...")
    <-block
    fmt.Println(i, "done!")
    done <- struct{}{}
}

func main() {
    block, done := make(chan struct{}), make(chan struct{})
    for i := 0; i < 4; i++ {
        go waiter(i, block, done)
    }
    time.Sleep(5 * time.Second)
    close(block)
    for i := 0; i < 4; i++ {
        <-done
    }
}

另外一个例子

func worker(i int, ch chan Work, quit chan struct{}) {
    var quitting bool
    for {
        select {
        case w := <-ch:
            if quitting {
                w.Refuse(); fmt.Println("worker", i, "refused", w)
                break
            }
            w.Do(); fmt.Println("worker", i, "processed", w)
        case <-quit:
            fmt.Println("worker", i, "quitting")
            quitting = true
        }
    }
}
func main() {
    ch, quit := make(chan Work), make(chan struct{})
    go makeWork(ch)
    for i := 0; i < 4; i++ { go worker(i, ch, quit) }
    time.Sleep(5 * time.Second)
    close(quit)
    time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
}

10、select中使用空channel

func worker(i int, ch chan Work, quit chan struct{}) {
    for {
        select {
        case w := <-ch:
            if quit == nil {
                w.Refuse(); fmt.Println("worker", i, "refused", w)
                break
            }
            w.Do(); fmt.Println("worker", i, "processed", w)
        case <-quit:
            fmt.Println("worker", i, "quitting")
            quit = nil
        }
    }
}

func main() {
    ch, quit := make(chan Work), make(chan struct{})
    go makeWork(ch)
    for i := 0; i < 4; i++ { go worker(i, ch, quit) }
    time.Sleep(5 * time.Second)
    close(quit)
    time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
}

本文来自:CSDN博客

感谢作者:abv123456789

查看原文:Go语言 你可能不知道的十个技巧

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