k8s与log--利用fluent bit收集k8s日志

iyacontrol · · 1098 次点击 · · 开始浏览    
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前言

收集日志的组件多不胜数,有ELK久负盛名组合中的logstash, 也有EFK组合中的filebeat,更有cncf新贵fluentd,另外还有大数据领域使用比较多的flume。本次主要说另外一种,和fluentd一脉相承的fluent bit。

Fluent Bit是一个开源和多平台的Log Processor and Forwarder,它允许您从不同的来源收集数据/日志,统一并将它们发送到多个目的地。它与Docker和Kubernetes环境完全兼容。Fluent Bit用C语言编写,具有可插拔的架构,支持大约30个扩展。它快速轻便,通过TLS为网络运营提供所需的安全性。

之所以选择fluent bit,看重了它的高性能。下面是官方贴出的一张与fluentd对比图:

Fluentd Fluent Bit
Scope Containers / Servers Containers / Servers
Language C & Ruby C
Memory ~40MB ~450KB
Performance High Performance High Performance
Dependencies Built as a Ruby Gem, it requires a certain number of gems. Zero dependencies, unless some special plugin requires them.
Plugins More than 650 plugins available Around 35 plugins available
License Apache License v2.0 Apache License v2.0

在已经拥有的插件满足需求和场景的前提下,fluent bit无疑是一个很好的选择。

fluent bit 简介

fluent bit

在使用的这段时间之后,总结以下几点优点:

  • 支持routing,适合多output的场景。比如有些业务日志,或写入到es中,供查询。或写入到hdfs中,供大数据进行分析。
  • fliter支持lua。对于那些对c语言hold不住的团队,可以用lua写自己的filter。
  • output 除了官方已经支持的十几种,还支持用golang写output。例如:fluent-bit-kafka-output-plugin

k8s日志收集

k8s日志分析

主要讲kubeadm部署的k8s集群。日志主要有:

  • kubelet和etcd的日志,一般采用systemd部署,自然而然就是要支持systemd格式日志的采集。filebeat并不支持该类型。
  • kube-apiserver等组件stderr和stdout日志,这个一般输出的格式取决于docker的日志驱动,一般为json-file。
  • 业务落盘的日志。支持tail文件的采集组件都满足。这点不在今天的讨论范围之内。

部署方案

fluent bit 采取DaemonSet部署。 如下图:

部署架构

部署yaml

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: elasticsearch-logging
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-app: elasticsearch-logging
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: Reconcile
    kubernetes.io/name: "Elasticsearch"
spec:
  ports:
  - port: 9200
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: db
  selector:
    k8s-app: elasticsearch-logging

---

# RBAC authn and authz
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: elasticsearch-logging
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-app: elasticsearch-logging
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: Reconcile
---
kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: elasticsearch-logging
  labels:
    k8s-app: elasticsearch-logging
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: Reconcile
rules:
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - "services"
  - "namespaces"
  - "endpoints"
  verbs:
  - "get"
---
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  namespace: kube-system
  name: elasticsearch-logging
  labels:
    k8s-app: elasticsearch-logging
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: Reconcile
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: elasticsearch-logging
  namespace: kube-system
  apiGroup: ""
roleRef:
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: elasticsearch-logging
  apiGroup: ""
---
# Elasticsearch deployment itself
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: StatefulSet
metadata:
  name: elasticsearch-logging
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-app: elasticsearch-logging
    version: v6.3.0
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: Reconcile
spec:
  serviceName: elasticsearch-logging
  replicas: 2
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: elasticsearch-logging
      version: v6.3.0
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: elasticsearch-logging
        version: v6.3.0
        kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: elasticsearch-logging
      containers:
      - image: k8s.gcr.io/elasticsearch:v6.3.0
        name: elasticsearch-logging
        resources:
          # need more cpu upon initialization, therefore burstable class
          limits:
            cpu: 1000m
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
        ports:
        - containerPort: 9200
          name: db
          protocol: TCP
        - containerPort: 9300
          name: transport
          protocol: TCP
        volumeMounts:
        - name: elasticsearch-logging
          mountPath: /data
        env:
        - name: "NAMESPACE"
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.namespace
      # Elasticsearch requires vm.max_map_count to be at least 262144.
      # If your OS already sets up this number to a higher value, feel free
      # to remove this init container.
      initContainers:
      - image: alpine:3.6
        command: ["/sbin/sysctl", "-w", "vm.max_map_count=262144"]
        name: elasticsearch-logging-init
        securityContext:
          privileged: true
  volumeClaimTemplates:
  - metadata:
      name: elasticsearch-logging
      annotations:
        volume.beta.kubernetes.io/storage-class: gp2
    spec:
      accessModes:
        - "ReadWriteOnce"
      resources:
        requests:
          storage: 10Gi

---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: fluent-bit-config
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-app: fluent-bit
data:
  # Configuration files: server, input, filters and output
  # ======================================================
  fluent-bit.conf: |
    [SERVICE]
        Flush         1
        Log_Level     info
        Daemon        off
        Parsers_File  parsers.conf
        HTTP_Server   On
        HTTP_Listen   0.0.0.0
        HTTP_Port     2020

    @INCLUDE input-kubernetes.conf
    @INCLUDE filter-kubernetes.conf
    @INCLUDE output-elasticsearch.conf

  input-kubernetes.conf: |
    [INPUT]
        Name              tail
        Tag               kube.*
        Path              /var/log/containers/*.log
        Parser            docker
        DB                /var/log/flb_kube.db
        Mem_Buf_Limit     5MB
        Skip_Long_Lines   On
        Refresh_Interval  10

    [INPUT]
        Name           systemd
        Tag             host.*
        Systemd_Filter  _SYSTEMD_UNIT=kubelet.service
        Path            /var/log/journal
        DB              /var/log/flb_host.db

  filter-kubernetes.conf: |
    [FILTER]
        Name                kubernetes
        Match               kube.*
        Kube_URL            https://kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local:443
        Merge_Log           On
        K8S-Logging.Parser  On
        K8S-Logging.Exclude On
    [FILTER]
        Name                kubernetes
        Match               host.*
        Kube_URL            https://kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local:443
        Merge_Log           On
        Use_Journal         On

  output-elasticsearch.conf: |
    [OUTPUT]
        Name            es
        Match           *
        Host            ${FLUENT_ELASTICSEARCH_HOST}
        Port            ${FLUENT_ELASTICSEARCH_PORT}
        Logstash_Format On
        Retry_Limit     False

  parsers.conf: |
    [PARSER]
        Name   apache
        Format regex
        Regex  ^(?<host>[^ ]*) [^ ]* (?<user>[^ ]*) \[(?<time>[^\]]*)\] "(?<method>\S+)(?: +(?<path>[^\"]*?)(?: +\S*)?)?" (?<code>[^ ]*) (?<size>[^ ]*)(?: "(?<referer>[^\"]*)" "(?<agent>[^\"]*)")?$
        Time_Key time
        Time_Format %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z

    [PARSER]
        Name   apache2
        Format regex
        Regex  ^(?<host>[^ ]*) [^ ]* (?<user>[^ ]*) \[(?<time>[^\]]*)\] "(?<method>\S+)(?: +(?<path>[^ ]*) +\S*)?" (?<code>[^ ]*) (?<size>[^ ]*)(?: "(?<referer>[^\"]*)" "(?<agent>[^\"]*)")?$
        Time_Key time
        Time_Format %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z

    [PARSER]
        Name   apache_error
        Format regex
        Regex  ^\[[^ ]* (?<time>[^\]]*)\] \[(?<level>[^\]]*)\](?: \[pid (?<pid>[^\]]*)\])?( \[client (?<client>[^\]]*)\])? (?<message>.*)$

    [PARSER]
        Name   nginx
        Format regex
        Regex ^(?<remote>[^ ]*) (?<host>[^ ]*) (?<user>[^ ]*) \[(?<time>[^\]]*)\] "(?<method>\S+)(?: +(?<path>[^\"]*?)(?: +\S*)?)?" (?<code>[^ ]*) (?<size>[^ ]*)(?: "(?<referer>[^\"]*)" "(?<agent>[^\"]*)")?$
        Time_Key time
        Time_Format %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z

    [PARSER]
        Name   json
        Format json
        Time_Key time
        Time_Format %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z

    [PARSER]
        Name        docker
        Format      json
        Time_Key    time
        Time_Format %Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S.%L
        Time_Keep   On
        # Command      |  Decoder | Field | Optional Action
        # =============|==================|=================
        Decode_Field_As   escaped    log

    [PARSER]
        Name        syslog
        Format      regex
        Regex       ^\<(?<pri>[0-9]+)\>(?<time>[^ ]* {1,2}[^ ]* [^ ]*) (?<host>[^ ]*) (?<ident>[a-zA-Z0-9_\/\.\-]*)(?:\[(?<pid>[0-9]+)\])?(?:[^\:]*\:)? *(?<message>.*)$
        Time_Key    time
        Time_Format %b %d %H:%M:%S

---

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
  name: fluent-bit
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-app: fluent-bit-logging
    version: v1
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
spec:
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: fluent-bit-logging
        version: v1
        kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
      annotations:
        prometheus.io/scrape: "true"
        prometheus.io/port: "2020"
        prometheus.io/path: /api/v1/metrics/prometheus
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: fluent-bit
        image: fluent/fluent-bit:1.0.0
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        ports:
          - containerPort: 2020
        env:
        - name: FLUENT_ELASTICSEARCH_HOST
          value: "elasticsearch-logging"
        - name: FLUENT_ELASTICSEARCH_PORT
          value: "9200"
        volumeMounts:
        - name: varlog
          mountPath: /var/log
        - name: varlibdockercontainers
          mountPath: /data/docker/containers
          readOnly: true
        - name: fluent-bit-config
          mountPath: /fluent-bit/etc/
      terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 10
      volumes:
      - name: varlog
        hostPath:
          path: /var/log
      - name: varlibdockercontainers
        hostPath:
          path: /data/docker/containers
      - name: fluent-bit-config
        configMap:
          name: fluent-bit-config
      serviceAccountName: fluent-bit
      tolerations:
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
        operator: Exists
        effect: NoSchedule

---

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: fluent-bit-read
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: fluent-bit-read
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: fluent-bit
  namespace: kube-system

---

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  name: fluent-bit-read
rules:
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources:
  - namespaces
  - pods
  verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]

---


apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: fluent-bit
  namespace: kube-system

---

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: kibana-logging
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-app: kibana-logging
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: Reconcile
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: kibana-logging
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: kibana-logging
      annotations:
        seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/pod: 'docker/default'
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: kibana-logging
        image: docker.elastic.co/kibana/kibana-oss:6.3.2
        resources:
          # need more cpu upon initialization, therefore burstable class
          limits:
            cpu: 1000m
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
        env:
          - name: ELASTICSEARCH_URL
            value: http://elasticsearch-logging:9200
        ports:
        - containerPort: 5601
          name: ui
          protocol: TCP


---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: kibana-logging
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-app: kibana-logging
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: Reconcile
    kubernetes.io/name: "Kibana"
  annotations:
    service.beta.kubernetes.io/aws-load-balancer-type: nlb
spec:
  ports:
  - port: 5601
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: ui
  selector:
    k8s-app: kibana-logging
  type: LoadBalancer

---

总结

真实场景的日志收集比较复杂,在日志量大的情况下,一般要引入kafka。
此外关于注意日志的lograte。一般来说,docker是支持该功能的。可以通过下面的配置解决:


cat >  /etc/docker/daemon.json <<EOF
{
 "log-opts": {
    "max-size": "100m",
    "max-file": "3"
  }
}
EOF

在k8s中运行的业务日志,不仅要考虑清除过时的日志,还要考虑新增pod的日志的收集。这个时候,往往需要在fluent bit上面再包一层逻辑,获取需要收集的日志路径。比如log-pilot

本文来自:Segmentfault

感谢作者:iyacontrol

查看原文:k8s与log--利用fluent bit收集k8s日志

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