Golang 使用channel作并发访问吞吐量限制

olzhy · · 1119 次点击 · · 开始浏览    
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golang中可以使用Buffered channel作为信号量来对服务的并发访问作吞吐量限制。 如下代码中,Serve函数遍历请求队列,对每次请求,启动一个goroutine来进行handle,sem的缓冲大小限制了同时调用handle函数的数量,Serve函数虽可保障每一刻最多有MaxOutstanding个goroutine正在调用handle函数,但在请求过频与过多的情况下无法保证goroutine的过度创建以造成资源耗尽的风险。 ServeWithThroughputLimit函数对Serve作了改进,即对给sem发送消息提到了goroutine创建之前,以对goroutine的创建作限制。这样,同一时刻最多有MaxOutstanding个goroutine对请求进行handle。 golang中可以使用Buffered channel作为信号量来对服务的并发访问作吞吐量限制。 如下代码中,Serve函数遍历请求队列,对每次请求,启动一个goroutine来进行handle,sem的缓冲大小限制了同时调用handle函数的数量,Serve函数虽可保障每一刻最多有MaxOutstanding个goroutine正在调用handle函数,但在请求过频与过多的情况下无法保证goroutine的过度创建以造成资源耗尽的风险。 ServeWithThroughputLimit函数对Serve作了改进,即对给sem发送消息提到了goroutine创建之前,以对goroutine的创建作限制。这样,同一时刻最多有MaxOutstanding个goroutine对请求进行handle。 <div class="dp-highlighter"><div class="bar"></div><ol start="1" class="dp-j"><li class="alt"><span><span class="keyword">package</span><span>&nbsp;main&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span><span class="keyword">import</span><span>&nbsp;(&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="string">"fmt"</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="string">"sync"</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="string">"time"</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span><span class="keyword">const</span><span>&nbsp;MaxOutstanding&nbsp;=&nbsp;</span><span class="number">2</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span><span class="keyword">type</span>&nbsp;Req&nbsp;<span class="keyword">struct</span>&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;id&nbsp;<span class="keyword">int</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>}&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span><span class="keyword">func</span>&nbsp;handle(req&nbsp;*Req)&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;time.Sleep(time.Second)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;fmt.Println(<span class="string">"handle&nbsp;req"</span><span>,&nbsp;req.id)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>}&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span><span class="keyword">func</span>&nbsp;Serve(queue&nbsp;<span class="keyword">chan</span>&nbsp;*Req)&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">var</span>&nbsp;wg&nbsp;sync.WaitGroup&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;sem&nbsp;:=&nbsp;<span class="keyword">make</span>(<span class="keyword">chan</span>&nbsp;<span class="keyword">int</span><span>,&nbsp;MaxOutstanding)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">for</span><span>&nbsp;req&nbsp;:=&nbsp;<span class="keyword">range</span>&nbsp;queue&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;wg.Add(<span class="number">1</span><span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">go</span>&nbsp;<span class="keyword">func</span>(req&nbsp;*Req)&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;fmt.Println(<span class="string">"a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched"</span><span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">defer</span>&nbsp;wg.Done()&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;sem&nbsp;&lt;-&nbsp;<span class="number">1</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;handle(req)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;-sem&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}(req)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;wg.Wait()&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>}&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span><span class="keyword">func</span>&nbsp;ServeWithThroughputLimit(queue&nbsp;<span class="keyword">chan</span>&nbsp;*Req)&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">var</span>&nbsp;wg&nbsp;sync.WaitGroup&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;sem&nbsp;:=&nbsp;<span class="keyword">make</span>(<span class="keyword">chan</span>&nbsp;<span class="keyword">int</span><span>,&nbsp;MaxOutstanding)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">for</span><span>&nbsp;req&nbsp;:=&nbsp;<span class="keyword">range</span>&nbsp;queue&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;wg.Add(<span class="number">1</span><span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;sem&nbsp;&lt;-&nbsp;<span class="number">1</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">go</span>&nbsp;<span class="keyword">func</span>(req&nbsp;*Req)&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;fmt.Println(<span class="string">"a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched"</span><span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">defer</span>&nbsp;wg.Done()&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;handle(req)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;-sem&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}(req)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;wg.Wait()&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>}&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span><span class="keyword">func</span>&nbsp;main()&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;queue&nbsp;:=&nbsp;<span class="keyword">make</span>(<span class="keyword">chan</span>&nbsp;*Req,&nbsp;<span class="number">5</span><span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="comment">//&nbsp;requests</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">go</span>&nbsp;<span class="keyword">func</span>()&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">for</span><span>&nbsp;i&nbsp;:=&nbsp;</span><span class="number">0</span><span>;&nbsp;i&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;</span><span class="number">5</span><span>;&nbsp;i++&nbsp;{&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;queue&nbsp;&lt;-&nbsp;&amp;Req{i}&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="keyword">close</span>(queue)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}()&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="comment">//&nbsp;server</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="comment">//&nbsp;Serve(queue)</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ServeWithThroughputLimit(queue)&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>}&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li></ol></div> 调用Serve函数的输出为: <div class="dp-highlighter nogutter"><div class="bar"></div><ol start="1" class="dp-j"><li class="alt"><span><span>a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class=""><span>handle&nbsp;req&nbsp;<span class="number">4</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>handle&nbsp;req&nbsp;<span class="number">3</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>handle&nbsp;req&nbsp;<span class="number">1</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class="alt"><span>handle&nbsp;req&nbsp;<span class="number">2</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>handle&nbsp;req&nbsp;<span class="number">0</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li></ol></div> 调用ServeWithThroughputLimit函数的输出为: <div class="dp-highlighter nogutter"><div class="bar"></div><ol start="1" class="dp-j"><li class="alt"><span><span>a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>handle&nbsp;req&nbsp;<span class="number">0</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>handle&nbsp;req&nbsp;<span class="number">1</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>handle&nbsp;req&nbsp;<span class="number">2</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>a&nbsp;goroutine&nbsp;launched&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></li><li class="alt"><span>handle&nbsp;req&nbsp;<span class="number">3</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li><li class=""><span>handle&nbsp;req&nbsp;<span class="number">4</span><span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></li></ol></div> 本文代码托管地址:<a href="https://github.com/olzhy/go-excercises/tree/master/throughput_limit" target="blank">https://github.com/olzhy/go-excercises/tree/master/throughput_limit</a> 原文地址:https://leileiluoluo.com/posts/golang-throughput-limit.html

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