03GORM源码解读

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简介

GORM 源码解读, 基于 v1.9.11 版本.

模型交互

前面已经研究过模型是如何定义并被解析的了, 这次看一下模型是如何和数据库交互的.

package main

import (
  "github.com/jinzhu/gorm"
  _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/sqlite"
)

type Product struct {
  gorm.Model
  Code string
  Price uint
}

func main() {
  db, err := gorm.Open("sqlite3", "test.db")
  if err != nil {
    panic("failed to connect database")
  }
  defer db.Close()

  // Migrate the schema
  db.AutoMigrate(&Product{})

  // 创建
  db.Create(&Product{Code: "L1212", Price: 1000})

  // 读取
  var product Product
  db.First(&product, 1) // 查询id为1的product
  db.First(&product, "code = ?", "L1212") // 查询code为l1212的product

  // 更新 - 更新product的price为2000
  db.Model(&product).Update("Price", 2000)

  // 删除 - 删除product
  db.Delete(&product)
}

AutoMigrate

当定义好模型之后, 第一步是使用 AutoMigrate 合并模型:

db.AutoMigrate(&Product{})

看一下它的源码:

// AutoMigrate run auto migration for given models, will only add missing fields, won't delete/change current data
func (s *DB) AutoMigrate(values ...interface{}) *DB {
    db := s.Unscoped()
    for _, value := range values {
        db = db.NewScope(value).autoMigrate().db
    }
    return db
}

内部是对每个传递的参数调用了 db.NewScope(value).autoMigrate().

那具体是如何合并的呢?

func (scope *Scope) autoMigrate() *Scope {
    tableName := scope.TableName()
    quotedTableName := scope.QuotedTableName()

    if !scope.Dialect().HasTable(tableName) {
        scope.createTable()
    } else {
        for _, field := range scope.GetModelStruct().StructFields {
            if !scope.Dialect().HasColumn(tableName, field.DBName) {
                if field.IsNormal {
                    sqlTag := scope.Dialect().DataTypeOf(field)
                    scope.Raw(fmt.Sprintf("ALTER TABLE %v ADD %v %v;", quotedTableName, scope.Quote(field.DBName), sqlTag)).Exec()
                }
            }
            scope.createJoinTable(field)
        }
        scope.autoIndex()
    }
    return scope
}

中间的 if 部分的代码展示了两条路径. 如果表还没有创建, 直接创建就行了.

否则就需要对模型中的每个字段进行操作, 如果列名不存在, 就需要变更表新增字段了.

scope.Raw(fmt.Sprintf("ALTER TABLE %v ADD %v %v;", quotedTableName, scope.Quote(field.DBName), sqlTag)).Exec()

SQL 语句是如何执行的, 先暂时不理会, 但从代码的形式上看算是挺简洁的, 直接使用 Raw 构造语句, Exec 执行.

同时, 对于模型中的每个字段, 还要更新一遍连接表, scope.createJoinTable(field).

在 for 循环处理完模型中的所有字段后, 再更新一遍索引, scope.autoIndex().

总结起来, 自动合并主要做了这么几件事: 创建表, 添加新增的字段, 更新表的关系, 更新索引.

createTable

前面省略了创建表的具体过程, 来仔细看看表是如何创建的.

func (scope *Scope) createTable() *Scope {
    var tags []string
    var primaryKeys []string
    var primaryKeyInColumnType = false
    for _, field := range scope.GetModelStruct().StructFields {
        if field.IsNormal {
            sqlTag := scope.Dialect().DataTypeOf(field)

            // Check if the primary key constraint was specified as
            // part of the column type. If so, we can only support
            // one column as the primary key.
            if strings.Contains(strings.ToLower(sqlTag), "primary key") {
                primaryKeyInColumnType = true
            }

            tags = append(tags, scope.Quote(field.DBName)+" "+sqlTag)
        }

        if field.IsPrimaryKey {
            primaryKeys = append(primaryKeys, scope.Quote(field.DBName))
        }
        scope.createJoinTable(field)
    }

    var primaryKeyStr string
    if len(primaryKeys) > 0 && !primaryKeyInColumnType {
        primaryKeyStr = fmt.Sprintf(", PRIMARY KEY (%v)", strings.Join(primaryKeys, ","))
    }

    scope.Raw(fmt.Sprintf("CREATE TABLE %v (%v %v)%s", scope.QuotedTableName(), strings.Join(tags, ","), primaryKeyStr, scope.getTableOptions())).Exec()

    scope.autoIndex()
    return scope
}

这就是构建 SQL 创建表的过程, 主要的过程是这行代码:

scope.Raw(fmt.Sprintf("CREATE TABLE %v (%v %v)%s", scope.QuotedTableName(), strings.Join(tags, ","), primaryKeyStr, scope.getTableOptions())).Exec()

前面的过程主要是遍历模型的字段, 获取每个字段的 sqlTag, 并加入 tags 中:

tags = append(tags, scope.Quote(field.DBName)+" "+sqlTag)

带有双引号的列名加上空格加上 sqlTag.

这个过程中还涉及到了主键的判断, 不过感觉这部分有点坑, 因为
sqlTag := scope.Dialect().DataTypeOf(field) 的实现取决于每种数据库对 DataTypeOf 的具体实现.

issues 2270 显示出现多个 primary key,
使用的是如下的模型定义, 数据库使用了 sqlite3:

type Permission struct {
    ID   int64  `gorm:"AUTO_INCREMENT;column:id;primary_key"`
    Name string `gorm:"column:name;type:varchar;unique;not null"`
    Idx  int64  `gorm:"AUTO_INCREMENT"`
}

虽然这个模型定义中只指定了一个 primary_key, 但结果 Idx 也变成了 primary_key:

[2019-01-19 19:40:30]  table "permission" has more than one primary key

[2019-01-19 19:40:30]  [0.14ms]  CREATE TABLE "permission" ("id" integer primary key autoincrement,"name" varchar NOT NULL UNIQUE,"idx" integer primary key autoincrement )
[0 rows affected or returned ]

原因只有一个, 它使用了 AUTO_INCREMENT 选项, 而在 sqlite3 的 DataTypeOf 实现中:

case reflect.Int, reflect.Int8, reflect.Int16, reflect.Int32, reflect.Uint, reflect.Uint8, reflect.Uint16, reflect.Uint32, reflect.Uintptr:
  if s.fieldCanAutoIncrement(field) {
    field.TagSettingsSet("AUTO_INCREMENT", "AUTO_INCREMENT")
    sqlType = "integer primary key autoincrement"
  } else {
    sqlType = "integer"
  }
case reflect.Int64, reflect.Uint64:
  if s.fieldCanAutoIncrement(field) {
    field.TagSettingsSet("AUTO_INCREMENT", "AUTO_INCREMENT")
    sqlType = "integer primary key autoincrement"
  } else {
    sqlType = "bigint"
  }

AUTO_INCREMENT 选项导致了返回的结果中存在 primary key.

我怀疑这是个 bug. 因为在后续有对是否是主键的判断, 并添加 primaryKeyStr.

if field.IsPrimaryKey {
  primaryKeys = append(primaryKeys, scope.Quote(field.DBName))
}
var primaryKeyStr string
if len(primaryKeys) > 0 && !primaryKeyInColumnType {
  primaryKeyStr = fmt.Sprintf(", PRIMARY KEY (%v)", strings.Join(primaryKeys, ","))
}

我觉得 sqlType 不应该返回关于 primary key 的信息.
要设置主键, 可以在后面的 primaryKeyStr 中进行.

好了, 对于主键的讨论就此告一段落了.

合并表和创建表的过程中都有 createJoinTable, 但因为关系实现还没有深入研究, 先忽略吧.

callbacks

增删改查都和 DB 结构体中的 callbacks 有关:

// DB contains information for current db connection
type DB struct {
  ...
    // global db
    parent        *DB
    callbacks     *Callback
    dialect       Dialect
    singularTable bool
  ...
}

看一下 Create 方法的代码:

// Create insert the value into database
func (s *DB) Create(value interface{}) *DB {
    scope := s.NewScope(value)
    return scope.callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.creates).db
}

在新的 scope 中调用了 callCallbacks 方法, 里面的参数是 s.parent.callbacks.creates.
parent 的类型也是 *DB, 算是继承.

继续挖掘 callCallbacks:

func (scope *Scope) callCallbacks(funcs []*func(s *Scope)) *Scope {
    defer func() {
        if err := recover(); err != nil {
            if db, ok := scope.db.db.(sqlTx); ok {
                db.Rollback()
            }
            panic(err)
        }
    }()
    for _, f := range funcs {
        (*f)(scope)
        if scope.skipLeft {
            break
        }
    }
    return scope
}

使用了 defer 下的 recover 模式, 以前介绍过这个模式, 不再深入.

callCallbacks 的参数其实是个函数的切片, 然后依次调用所有的函数, 除非 scope.skipLeft 为 true.

看过了调用的方式, 让我们来看看 Callback 到底是什么.

// Callback is a struct that contains all CRUD callbacks
//   Field `creates` contains callbacks will be call when creating object
//   Field `updates` contains callbacks will be call when updating object
//   Field `deletes` contains callbacks will be call when deleting object
//   Field `queries` contains callbacks will be call when querying object with query methods like Find, First, Related, Association...
//   Field `rowQueries` contains callbacks will be call when querying object with Row, Rows...
//   Field `processors` contains all callback processors, will be used to generate above callbacks in order
type Callback struct {
    logger     logger
    creates    []*func(scope *Scope)
    updates    []*func(scope *Scope)
    deletes    []*func(scope *Scope)
    queries    []*func(scope *Scope)
    rowQueries []*func(scope *Scope)
    processors []*CallbackProcessor
}

Callback 里包含了很多的函数切片, 用于增删改查. 注释已经解释的很清楚了.

关注一下 CallbackProcessor, 这是用于按序生成所有 callbacks 的.

// CallbackProcessor contains callback informations
type CallbackProcessor struct {
    logger    logger
    name      string              // current callback's name
    before    string              // register current callback before a callback
    after     string              // register current callback after a callback
    replace   bool                // replace callbacks with same name
    remove    bool                // delete callbacks with same name
    kind      string              // callback type: create, update, delete, query, row_query
    processor *func(scope *Scope) // callback handler
    parent    *Callback
}
// Create could be used to register callbacks for creating object
//     db.Callback().Create().After("gorm:create").Register("plugin:run_after_create", func(*Scope) {
//       // business logic
//       ...
//
//       // set error if some thing wrong happened, will rollback the creating
//       scope.Err(errors.New("error"))
//     })
func (c *Callback) Create() *CallbackProcessor {
    return &CallbackProcessor{logger: c.logger, kind: "create", parent: c}
}

// Update could be used to register callbacks for updating object, refer `Create` for usage
func (c *Callback) Update() *CallbackProcessor {
    return &CallbackProcessor{logger: c.logger, kind: "update", parent: c}
}

// Delete could be used to register callbacks for deleting object, refer `Create` for usage
func (c *Callback) Delete() *CallbackProcessor {
    return &CallbackProcessor{logger: c.logger, kind: "delete", parent: c}
}

// Query could be used to register callbacks for querying objects with query methods like `Find`, `First`, `Related`, `Association`...
// Refer `Create` for usage
func (c *Callback) Query() *CallbackProcessor {
    return &CallbackProcessor{logger: c.logger, kind: "query", parent: c}
}

// RowQuery could be used to register callbacks for querying objects with `Row`, `Rows`, refer `Create` for usage
func (c *Callback) RowQuery() *CallbackProcessor {
    return &CallbackProcessor{logger: c.logger, kind: "row_query", parent: c}
}

Callback 有各种方法来创建不同类型的 CallbackProcessor.

// After insert a new callback after callback `callbackName`, refer `Callbacks.Create`
func (cp *CallbackProcessor) After(callbackName string) *CallbackProcessor {
    cp.after = callbackName
    return cp
}

// Before insert a new callback before callback `callbackName`, refer `Callbacks.Create`
func (cp *CallbackProcessor) Before(callbackName string) *CallbackProcessor {
    cp.before = callbackName
    return cp
}

AfterBefore 更新了 CallbackProcessor 上特定的属性, 用于后续计算 callback 调用顺序.

db.Callback().Create().After("gorm:create").Register("plugin:run_after_create", func(*Scope) {
  // business logic
  ...

  // set error if some thing wrong happened, will rollback the creating
  scope.Err(errors.New("error"))
})

注释上的例子是这样的, 继续看 Register 方法.

// Register a new callback, refer `Callbacks.Create`
func (cp *CallbackProcessor) Register(callbackName string, callback func(scope *Scope)) {
    if cp.kind == "row_query" {
        if cp.before == "" && cp.after == "" && callbackName != "gorm:row_query" {
            cp.logger.Print(fmt.Sprintf("Registering RowQuery callback %v without specify order with Before(), After(), applying Before('gorm:row_query') by default for compatibility...\n", callbackName))
            cp.before = "gorm:row_query"
        }
    }

    cp.name = callbackName
    cp.processor = &callback
    cp.parent.processors = append(cp.parent.processors, cp)
    cp.parent.reorder()
}

主要是设置了 cp 的 processor 属性, 并将该 cp 添加到了 cp.parent.processors 中.
然后调用 cp.parent.reorder() 进行了重新排序.

有注册方法, 当然也有对应的删除方法:

// Remove a registered callback
//     db.Callback().Create().Remove("gorm:update_time_stamp_when_create")
func (cp *CallbackProcessor) Remove(callbackName string) {
    cp.logger.Print(fmt.Sprintf("[info] removing callback `%v` from %v\n", callbackName, fileWithLineNum()))
    cp.name = callbackName
    cp.remove = true
    cp.parent.processors = append(cp.parent.processors, cp)
    cp.parent.reorder()
}

设置 remove 属性为 true, 然后重新排序.

替换的方法也是类似:

// Replace a registered callback with new callback
//     db.Callback().Create().Replace("gorm:update_time_stamp_when_create", func(*Scope) {
//           scope.SetColumn("Created", now)
//           scope.SetColumn("Updated", now)
//     })
func (cp *CallbackProcessor) Replace(callbackName string, callback func(scope *Scope)) {
    cp.logger.Print(fmt.Sprintf("[info] replacing callback `%v` from %v\n", callbackName, fileWithLineNum()))
    cp.name = callbackName
    cp.processor = &callback
    cp.replace = true
    cp.parent.processors = append(cp.parent.processors, cp)
    cp.parent.reorder()
}

还是看一下重新排序是如何进行的吧:

// reorder all registered processors, and reset CRUD callbacks
func (c *Callback) reorder() {
    var creates, updates, deletes, queries, rowQueries []*CallbackProcessor

    for _, processor := range c.processors {
        if processor.name != "" {
            switch processor.kind {
            case "create":
                creates = append(creates, processor)
            case "update":
                updates = append(updates, processor)
            case "delete":
                deletes = append(deletes, processor)
            case "query":
                queries = append(queries, processor)
            case "row_query":
                rowQueries = append(rowQueries, processor)
            }
        }
    }

    c.creates = sortProcessors(creates)
    c.updates = sortProcessors(updates)
    c.deletes = sortProcessors(deletes)
    c.queries = sortProcessors(queries)
    c.rowQueries = sortProcessors(rowQueries)
}

上半部分只是分别归类, 具体还是要看 sortProcessors:

// sortProcessors sort callback processors based on its before, after, remove, replace
func sortProcessors(cps []*CallbackProcessor) []*func(scope *Scope) {
    var (
        allNames, sortedNames []string
        sortCallbackProcessor func(c *CallbackProcessor)
    )

    for _, cp := range cps {
        // show warning message the callback name already exists
        if index := getRIndex(allNames, cp.name); index > -1 && !cp.replace && !cp.remove {
            cp.logger.Print(fmt.Sprintf("[warning] duplicated callback `%v` from %v\n", cp.name, fileWithLineNum()))
        }
        allNames = append(allNames, cp.name)
    }

    sortCallbackProcessor = func(c *CallbackProcessor) {
        if getRIndex(sortedNames, c.name) == -1 { // if not sorted
            if c.before != "" { // if defined before callback
                if index := getRIndex(sortedNames, c.before); index != -1 {
                    // if before callback already sorted, append current callback just after it
                    sortedNames = append(sortedNames[:index], append([]string{c.name}, sortedNames[index:]...)...)
                } else if index := getRIndex(allNames, c.before); index != -1 {
                    // if before callback exists but haven't sorted, append current callback to last
                    sortedNames = append(sortedNames, c.name)
                    sortCallbackProcessor(cps[index])
                }
            }

            if c.after != "" { // if defined after callback
                if index := getRIndex(sortedNames, c.after); index != -1 {
                    // if after callback already sorted, append current callback just before it
                    sortedNames = append(sortedNames[:index+1], append([]string{c.name}, sortedNames[index+1:]...)...)
                } else if index := getRIndex(allNames, c.after); index != -1 {
                    // if after callback exists but haven't sorted
                    cp := cps[index]
                    // set after callback's before callback to current callback
                    if cp.before == "" {
                        cp.before = c.name
                    }
                    sortCallbackProcessor(cp)
                }
            }

            // if current callback haven't been sorted, append it to last
            if getRIndex(sortedNames, c.name) == -1 {
                sortedNames = append(sortedNames, c.name)
            }
        }
    }

    for _, cp := range cps {
        sortCallbackProcessor(cp)
    }

    var sortedFuncs []*func(scope *Scope)
    for _, name := range sortedNames {
        if index := getRIndex(allNames, name); !cps[index].remove {
            sortedFuncs = append(sortedFuncs, cps[index].processor)
        }
    }

    return sortedFuncs
}

首先获取了所有 cp 的名字, 同时提示是否发现了重复. sortedNames 里保存排序好的名字.

// getRIndex get right index from string slice
func getRIndex(strs []string, str string) int {
    for i := len(strs) - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
        if strs[i] == str {
            return i
        }
    }
    return -1
}

getRIndex 获取最右边的索引.

看一下 sortCallbackProcessor 函数到底在做什么.

里面有两个判断部分, 先看第一个部分:

if c.before != "" { // if defined before callback
  if index := getRIndex(sortedNames, c.before); index != -1 {
    // if before callback already sorted, append current callback just after it
    sortedNames = append(sortedNames[:index], append([]string{c.name}, sortedNames[index:]...)...)
  } else if index := getRIndex(allNames, c.before); index != -1 {
    // if before callback exists but haven't sorted, append current callback to last
    sortedNames = append(sortedNames, c.name)
    sortCallbackProcessor(cps[index])
  }
}

分为两种情况, 如果 before callback 已经排序好了, 直接插在它的后面就行.

如果 before callback 确实存在, 但还没有被排序, 就将当前名字直接放在 sortedNames 的最后.
然后递归调用 sortCallbackProcessor(cps[index]), 这就是直接进入到 before callback 的排序中了.

再看第二个部分:

if c.after != "" { // if defined after callback
  if index := getRIndex(sortedNames, c.after); index != -1 {
    // if after callback already sorted, append current callback just before it
    sortedNames = append(sortedNames[:index+1], append([]string{c.name}, sortedNames[index+1:]...)...)
  } else if index := getRIndex(allNames, c.after); index != -1 {
    // if after callback exists but haven't sorted
    cp := cps[index]
    // set after callback's before callback to current callback
    if cp.before == "" {
      cp.before = c.name
    }
    sortCallbackProcessor(cp)
  }
}

其实和前面的逻辑差不多, 如果 after callback 已经排序好了, 直接插在它的前面就行.

如果 after callback 确实存在, 会修改 after callback 的 before 属性, 设置为当前 callback.
然后递归调用 sortCallbackProcessor(cp), 进入到 after callback 的排序中.

// if current callback haven't been sorted, append it to last
if getRIndex(sortedNames, c.name) == -1 {
  sortedNames = append(sortedNames, c.name)
}

还没保存就直接放到最后. sortCallbackProcessor 的内容就是这样.

for _, cp := range cps {
  sortCallbackProcessor(cp)
}

开始排序. 等排序完了之后, sortedNames 就完成了:

var sortedFuncs []*func(scope *Scope)
for _, name := range sortedNames {
  if index := getRIndex(allNames, name); !cps[index].remove {
    sortedFuncs = append(sortedFuncs, cps[index].processor)
  }
}

return sortedFuncs

将那些不是 remove 状态的 callback, 依次添加到 sortedFuncs 中.

最后还有一个 Get 方法用于获取注册的回调:

// Get registered callback
//    db.Callback().Create().Get("gorm:create")
func (cp *CallbackProcessor) Get(callbackName string) (callback func(scope *Scope)) {
    for _, p := range cp.parent.processors {
        if p.name == callbackName && p.kind == cp.kind {
            if p.remove {
                callback = nil
            } else {
                callback = *p.processor
            }
        }
    }
    return
}

现在, 我们应该已经清楚了回调函数是如何注册并排序的了, 以及如何按名称获取单个回调函数.

实际注册流程

前面只是讲解了理论上的定义, 看一下实际上是在哪里注册的.

DB 在初始化的时候, 即 Open 方法调用了如下的语句:

db = &DB{
  db:        dbSQL,
  logger:    defaultLogger,
  callbacks: DefaultCallback,
  dialect:   newDialect(dialect, dbSQL),
}

这个 DefaultCallback 的定义如下:

// DefaultCallback default callbacks defined by gorm
var DefaultCallback = &Callback{}

一开始我也是有点慌, 这只是个空定义, 肯定有地方初始化的. 扫了一眼目录就明白了.

callback_create.go 文件下定义了 create 方面的注册流程.

// Define callbacks for creating
func init() {
    DefaultCallback.Create().Register("gorm:begin_transaction", beginTransactionCallback)
    DefaultCallback.Create().Register("gorm:before_create", beforeCreateCallback)
    DefaultCallback.Create().Register("gorm:save_before_associations", saveBeforeAssociationsCallback)
    DefaultCallback.Create().Register("gorm:update_time_stamp", updateTimeStampForCreateCallback)
    DefaultCallback.Create().Register("gorm:create", createCallback)
    DefaultCallback.Create().Register("gorm:force_reload_after_create", forceReloadAfterCreateCallback)
    DefaultCallback.Create().Register("gorm:save_after_associations", saveAfterAssociationsCallback)
    DefaultCallback.Create().Register("gorm:after_create", afterCreateCallback)
    DefaultCallback.Create().Register("gorm:commit_or_rollback_transaction", commitOrRollbackTransactionCallback)
}

结合文档,
看一下 BeforeSaveBeforeCreate 是如何实现的.

当你定义一个模型时, 可以在这个模型上实现 BeforeSaveBeforeCreate 之类的方法,
这些方法会在恰当的时候被调用.

func (u *User) BeforeSave() (err error) {
  if !u.IsValid() {
    err = errors.New("can't save invalid data")
  }
  return
}

func (u *User) AfterCreate(scope *gorm.Scope) (err error) {
  if u.ID == 1 {
    scope.DB().Model(u).Update("role", "admin")
  }
  return
}

上面是官方文档上的例子. 在前面我们在注释中看到了如何手动注册一个回调函数,
类似于 DefaultCallback.Create().Register("gorm:begin_transaction", beginTransactionCallback),
但如何实现调用模型上定义的方法呢?

看一下 beforeCreateCallback 函数:

// beforeCreateCallback will invoke `BeforeSave`, `BeforeCreate` method before creating
func beforeCreateCallback(scope *Scope) {
    if !scope.HasError() {
        scope.CallMethod("BeforeSave")
    }
    if !scope.HasError() {
        scope.CallMethod("BeforeCreate")
    }
}

原来是通过 scope.CallMethod 方法实现的, 传递特定的方法名称就能调用该方法了.

// CallMethod call scope value's method, if it is a slice, will call its element's method one by one
func (scope *Scope) CallMethod(methodName string) {
    if scope.Value == nil {
        return
    }

    if indirectScopeValue := scope.IndirectValue(); indirectScopeValue.Kind() == reflect.Slice {
        for i := 0; i < indirectScopeValue.Len(); i++ {
            scope.callMethod(methodName, indirectScopeValue.Index(i))
        }
    } else {
        scope.callMethod(methodName, indirectScopeValue)
    }
}

绕了一圈, 继续看 callMethod 的代码:

func (scope *Scope) callMethod(methodName string, reflectValue reflect.Value) {
    // Only get address from non-pointer
    if reflectValue.CanAddr() && reflectValue.Kind() != reflect.Ptr {
        reflectValue = reflectValue.Addr()
    }

    if methodValue := reflectValue.MethodByName(methodName); methodValue.IsValid() {
        switch method := methodValue.Interface().(type) {
        case func():
            method()
        case func(*Scope):
            method(scope)
        case func(*DB):
            newDB := scope.NewDB()
            method(newDB)
            scope.Err(newDB.Error)
        case func() error:
            scope.Err(method())
        case func(*Scope) error:
            scope.Err(method(scope))
        case func(*DB) error:
            newDB := scope.NewDB()
            scope.Err(method(newDB))
            scope.Err(newDB.Error)
        default:
            scope.Err(fmt.Errorf("unsupported function %v", methodName))
        }
    }
}

这些灵活的方式都是靠反射实现的, 关键代码是 methodValue := reflectValue.MethodByName(methodName).

switch 可以看到, 方法可以有不同的签名:

switch method := methodValue.Interface().(type) {
case func():
  method()
case func(*Scope):
  method(scope)
case func(*DB):
  newDB := scope.NewDB()
  method(newDB)
  scope.Err(newDB.Error)
case func() error:
  scope.Err(method())
case func(*Scope) error:
  scope.Err(method(scope))
case func(*DB) error:
  newDB := scope.NewDB()
  scope.Err(method(newDB))
  scope.Err(newDB.Error)
default:
  scope.Err(fmt.Errorf("unsupported function %v", methodName))
}

所以, 实际上这都可以看作是 reflect 的大型示范使用例子.

createCallback

其他的钩子函数不看了, 具体看一下当插入单条数据时都在干什么:

// createCallback the callback used to insert data into database
func createCallback(scope *Scope) {
    if !scope.HasError() {
        defer scope.trace(scope.db.nowFunc())

        var (
            columns, placeholders        []string
            blankColumnsWithDefaultValue []string
        )

        for _, field := range scope.Fields() {
            if scope.changeableField(field) {
                if field.IsNormal && !field.IsIgnored {
                    if field.IsBlank && field.HasDefaultValue {
                        blankColumnsWithDefaultValue = append(blankColumnsWithDefaultValue, scope.Quote(field.DBName))
                        scope.InstanceSet("gorm:blank_columns_with_default_value", blankColumnsWithDefaultValue)
                    } else if !field.IsPrimaryKey || !field.IsBlank {
                        columns = append(columns, scope.Quote(field.DBName))
                        placeholders = append(placeholders, scope.AddToVars(field.Field.Interface()))
                    }
                } else if field.Relationship != nil && field.Relationship.Kind == "belongs_to" {
                    for _, foreignKey := range field.Relationship.ForeignDBNames {
                        if foreignField, ok := scope.FieldByName(foreignKey); ok && !scope.changeableField(foreignField) {
                            columns = append(columns, scope.Quote(foreignField.DBName))
                            placeholders = append(placeholders, scope.AddToVars(foreignField.Field.Interface()))
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        var (
            returningColumn = "*"
            quotedTableName = scope.QuotedTableName()
            primaryField    = scope.PrimaryField()
            extraOption     string
            insertModifier  string
        )

        if str, ok := scope.Get("gorm:insert_option"); ok {
            extraOption = fmt.Sprint(str)
        }
        if str, ok := scope.Get("gorm:insert_modifier"); ok {
            insertModifier = strings.ToUpper(fmt.Sprint(str))
            if insertModifier == "INTO" {
                insertModifier = ""
            }
        }

        if primaryField != nil {
            returningColumn = scope.Quote(primaryField.DBName)
        }

        lastInsertIDReturningSuffix := scope.Dialect().LastInsertIDReturningSuffix(quotedTableName, returningColumn)

        if len(columns) == 0 {
            scope.Raw(fmt.Sprintf(
                "INSERT %v INTO %v %v%v%v",
                addExtraSpaceIfExist(insertModifier),
                quotedTableName,
                scope.Dialect().DefaultValueStr(),
                addExtraSpaceIfExist(extraOption),
                addExtraSpaceIfExist(lastInsertIDReturningSuffix),
            ))
        } else {
            scope.Raw(fmt.Sprintf(
                "INSERT %v INTO %v (%v) VALUES (%v)%v%v",
                addExtraSpaceIfExist(insertModifier),
                scope.QuotedTableName(),
                strings.Join(columns, ","),
                strings.Join(placeholders, ","),
                addExtraSpaceIfExist(extraOption),
                addExtraSpaceIfExist(lastInsertIDReturningSuffix),
            ))
        }

        // execute create sql
        if lastInsertIDReturningSuffix == "" || primaryField == nil {
            if result, err := scope.SQLDB().Exec(scope.SQL, scope.SQLVars...); scope.Err(err) == nil {
                // set rows affected count
                scope.db.RowsAffected, _ = result.RowsAffected()

                // set primary value to primary field
                if primaryField != nil && primaryField.IsBlank {
                    if primaryValue, err := result.LastInsertId(); scope.Err(err) == nil {
                        scope.Err(primaryField.Set(primaryValue))
                    }
                }
            }
        } else {
            if primaryField.Field.CanAddr() {
                if err := scope.SQLDB().QueryRow(scope.SQL, scope.SQLVars...).Scan(primaryField.Field.Addr().Interface()); scope.Err(err) == nil {
                    primaryField.IsBlank = false
                    scope.db.RowsAffected = 1
                }
            } else {
                scope.Err(ErrUnaddressable)
            }
        }
    }
}

首先, 内部的第一个 for 循环遍历了所有的字段, 并更新了开头定义的三个切片.

for _, field := range scope.Fields() {
  if scope.changeableField(field) {
    if field.IsNormal && !field.IsIgnored {
      if field.IsBlank && field.HasDefaultValue {
        blankColumnsWithDefaultValue = append(blankColumnsWithDefaultValue, scope.Quote(field.DBName))
        scope.InstanceSet("gorm:blank_columns_with_default_value", blankColumnsWithDefaultValue)
      } else if !field.IsPrimaryKey || !field.IsBlank {
        columns = append(columns, scope.Quote(field.DBName))
        placeholders = append(placeholders, scope.AddToVars(field.Field.Interface()))
      }
    } else if field.Relationship != nil && field.Relationship.Kind == "belongs_to" {
      for _, foreignKey := range field.Relationship.ForeignDBNames {
        if foreignField, ok := scope.FieldByName(foreignKey); ok && !scope.changeableField(foreignField) {
          columns = append(columns, scope.Quote(foreignField.DBName))
          placeholders = append(placeholders, scope.AddToVars(foreignField.Field.Interface()))
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

然后就是获取并设置一些信息:

var (
  returningColumn = "*"
  quotedTableName = scope.QuotedTableName()
  primaryField    = scope.PrimaryField()
  extraOption     string
  insertModifier  string
)

等信息都获取完了, 就开始构造插入语句了:

if len(columns) == 0 {
  scope.Raw(fmt.Sprintf(
    "INSERT %v INTO %v %v%v%v",
    addExtraSpaceIfExist(insertModifier),
    quotedTableName,
    scope.Dialect().DefaultValueStr(),
    addExtraSpaceIfExist(extraOption),
    addExtraSpaceIfExist(lastInsertIDReturningSuffix),
  ))
} else {
  scope.Raw(fmt.Sprintf(
    "INSERT %v INTO %v (%v) VALUES (%v)%v%v",
    addExtraSpaceIfExist(insertModifier),
    scope.QuotedTableName(),
    strings.Join(columns, ","),
    strings.Join(placeholders, ","),
    addExtraSpaceIfExist(extraOption),
    addExtraSpaceIfExist(lastInsertIDReturningSuffix),
  ))
}

最后执行 sql 语句:

// execute create sql
if lastInsertIDReturningSuffix == "" || primaryField == nil {
  if result, err := scope.SQLDB().Exec(scope.SQL, scope.SQLVars...); scope.Err(err) == nil {
    // set rows affected count
    scope.db.RowsAffected, _ = result.RowsAffected()

    // set primary value to primary field
    if primaryField != nil && primaryField.IsBlank {
      if primaryValue, err := result.LastInsertId(); scope.Err(err) == nil {
        scope.Err(primaryField.Set(primaryValue))
      }
    }
  }
} else {
  if primaryField.Field.CanAddr() {
    if err := scope.SQLDB().QueryRow(scope.SQL, scope.SQLVars...).Scan(primaryField.Field.Addr().Interface()); scope.Err(err) == nil {
      primaryField.IsBlank = false
      scope.db.RowsAffected = 1
    }
  } else {
    scope.Err(ErrUnaddressable)
  }
}

这里的第一个判断条件是和 lastInsertIDReturningSuffix 有关的, 只有 PostgreSQL 会返回非空的字符串.

var userid int
err := db.QueryRow(`INSERT INTO users(name, favorite_fruit, age)
    VALUES('beatrice', 'starfruit', 93) RETURNING id`).Scan(&userid)

PostgreSQL 中不支持 LastInsertId() 方法, 要获取 ID 需要像上面这样调用.
参考 PostgreSQL Queries.

所以执行方式有所不同.

这样, createCallback 回调就看完了, 插入数据的过程也知道了.

总结

在这一部分里, 主要看了数据表是如何创建和合并的, 以及钩子函数是如何注册并排序的, 以及何时被调用的.

本文来自:Segmentfault

感谢作者:帅气猫咪

查看原文:03GORM源码解读

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