kubernetes源码剖析之client-go(二) Informer机制

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kubernetes源码剖析之client-go(一) Informer机制

  Kubernetes通过informer机制,实现在不依赖任何中间件的情况下保证消息的实时性、可靠性、顺序性。其他Kubernetes组件通过client-go的informer机制与Api Server进行通信。Informer的核心组件包括:

  • Reflector
     用于监控(Watch)指定Kubernetes资源
  • DeltaFIFO
      Delta的先进先出队列,Reflector为生产者,Controller为消费者
  • Indexer
     自带索引功能的本地存储,用于存储资源对象

Infermers

运行原理

kubernetes源码剖析之client-go(二) Informer机制

代码示例

package main

import (
    "log"
    "time"

    v1 "k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/apis/meta/v1"
    "k8s.io/client-go/informers"
    "k8s.io/client-go/kubernetes"
    "k8s.io/client-go/tools/cache"
    "k8s.io/client-go/tools/clientcmd"
)

func main() {

    config, err := clientcmd.BuildConfigFromFlags("", "D:\\coding\\config")
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }

    // Imformer通过clientset与Api Server通信
    clientset, err := kubernetes.NewForConfig(config)
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }

    // 创建stopCH对象,用于进程退出前通知Imformer提前退出
    stopCh := make(chan struct{})
    defer close(stopCh)

    // 实例化SharedInformer对象,参数clientset用于与Api Server交互, time.Minute设定resync周期,0为禁用resync
    // 通过map共享Informer( informers map[reflect.Type]cache.SharedIndexInformer ),避免同一资源的Informer被重复实例化
    sharedInformers := informers.NewSharedInformerFactory(clientset, time.Minute)
    // 获取Pod资源的informer对象
    // 每一个K8S资源都会实现Informer机制,每个Informer实现都会提供Informer和Lister方法
    informer := sharedInformers.Core().V1().Pods().Informer()

    // 添加资源的回调方法
    informer.AddEventHandler(cache.ResourceEventHandlerFuncs{
        // 创建资源时的回调方法
        AddFunc: func(obj interface{}) {
            mObj := obj.(v1.Object)
            log.Printf("New Pod Added to Stroe: %s", mObj.GetName())

        },
        // 更新资源时的回调方法
        UpdateFunc: func(oldObj, newObj interface{}) {
            oObj := oldObj.(v1.Object)
            nObj := newObj.(v1.Object)
            log.Printf("%s Pod Updated to %s", oObj.GetName(), nObj.GetName())
        },
        // 删除资源时的回调方法
        DeleteFunc: func(obj interface{}) {
            mObj := obj.(v1.Object)
            log.Printf("Pod Deleted from Stroe : %s", mObj.GetName())
        },
    })

    informer.Run(stopCh)
}

Reflector

 Informer对Kubernetes的Api Server资源进行监控(Watch)操作。其中最核心的功能是Reflector,Reflector用于监控指定的Kubernetes资源,当监控的资源发生变化时,触发相应的变更事件。并将其资源对象存放到本地缓冲DeltaFIFO中。

 通过NewReflector方法实例化Reflector对象,方法必须传入ListerWatcher数据接口对象。 ListerWatcher拥有List和Watch方法,用于获取和监控资源列表,只要实现了List和Watch方法的对象都可以成为ListerWatcher。

#源码路径 vender\k8s.io\client-go\tools\cache\reflector.go

// NewReflector creates a new Reflector object which will keep the given store up to
// date with the server's contents for the given resource. Reflector promises to
// only put things in the store that have the type of expectedType, unless expectedType
// is nil. If resyncPeriod is non-zero, then lists will be executed after every
// resyncPeriod, so that you can use reflectors to periodically process everything as
// well as incrementally processing the things that change.
func NewReflector(lw ListerWatcher, expectedType interface{}, store Store, resyncPeriod time.Duration) *Reflector {
    return NewNamedReflector(naming.GetNameFromCallsite(internalPackages...), lw, expectedType, store, resyncPeriod)
}

  Reflector通过Run函数启动监控进程,并处理监控的事件。其中最主要的是ListAndWatch函数,它负责List和Watch指定的Kubernetes Api Server资源。

#源码路径 vender\k8s.io\client-go\tools\cache\reflector.go
// Run starts a watch and handles watch events. Will restart the watch if it is closed.
// Run will exit when stopCh is closed.
func (r *Reflector) Run(stopCh <-chan struct{}) {
    klog.V(3).Infof("Starting reflector %v (%s) from %s", r.expectedTypeName, r.resyncPeriod, r.name)
    wait.Until(func() {
        if err := r.ListAndWatch(stopCh); err != nil {
            utilruntime.HandleError(err)
        }
    }, r.period, stopCh)
}

ListAndWatch函数

  ListAndWatch第一次运行时,通过List获取资源下的所有对象和版本信息,后续通过版本进行watch

#源码路径 vender\k8s.io\client-go\tools\cache\reflector.go
// ListAndWatch first lists all items and get the resource version at the moment of call,
// and then use the resource version to watch.
// It returns error if ListAndWatch didn't even try to initialize watch.
func (r *Reflector) ListAndWatch(stopCh <-chan struct{}) error {
    klog.V(3).Infof("Listing and watching %v from %s", r.expectedTypeName, r.name)
    var resourceVersion string

    // Explicitly set "0" as resource version - it's fine for the List()
    // to be served from cache and potentially be delayed relative to
    // etcd contents. Reflector framework will catch up via Watch() eventually.
    // 初始化时将版本置为0
    options := metav1.ListOptions{ResourceVersion: "0"}

    if err := func() error {
        ... 
            // Attempt to gather list in chunks, if supported by listerWatcher, if not, the first
            // list request will return the full response.
            pager := pager.New(pager.SimplePageFunc(func(opts metav1.ListOptions) (runtime.Object, error) {
              // 获取资源下的所有对象的数据,当传入的opts的ResourceVersion为0时,返回 全量数据。非0时返回增量数据。
                return r.listerWatcher.List(opts)
            }))
            if r.WatchListPageSize != 0 {
                pager.PageSize = r.WatchListPageSize
            }
            // Pager falls back to full list if paginated list calls fail due to an "Expired" error.
            list, err = pager.List(context.Background(), options)
            close(listCh)
        }()
    ......

        listMetaInterface, err := meta.ListAccessor(list)
        if err != nil {
            return fmt.Errorf("%s: Unable to understand list result %#v: %v", r.name, list, err)
        }
        // 获取资源的版本号信息
        resourceVersion = listMetaInterface.GetResourceVersion()
        initTrace.Step("Resource version extracted")
      // 将资源数据装成资源对象列表
        items, err := meta.ExtractList(list)
        if err != nil {
            return fmt.Errorf("%s: Unable to understand list result %#v (%v)", r.name, list, err)
        }
        initTrace.Step("Objects extracted")
        // 将资源对象列表中的资源对象和资源版本存储只DeltaFIFO中
        if err := r.syncWith(items, resourceVersion); err != nil {
            return fmt.Errorf("%s: Unable to sync list result: %v", r.name, err)
        }
        initTrace.Step("SyncWith done")
        // 设置最新的资源版本号
        r.setLastSyncResourceVersion(resourceVersion)
        initTrace.Step("Resource version updated")
        return nil
    }(); err != nil {
        return err
    }

    resyncerrc := make(chan error, 1)
    cancelCh := make(chan struct{})
    defer close(cancelCh)
    go func() {
        resyncCh, cleanup := r.resyncChan()
        defer func() {
            cleanup() // Call the last one written into cleanup
        }()
        for {
            select {
            case <-resyncCh:
            case <-stopCh:
                return
            case <-cancelCh:
                return
            }
            if r.ShouldResync == nil || r.ShouldResync() {
                klog.V(4).Infof("%s: forcing resync", r.name)
                if err := r.store.Resync(); err != nil {
                    resyncerrc <- err
                    return
                }
            }
            cleanup()
            resyncCh, cleanup = r.resyncChan()
        }
    }()

    for {
        // give the stopCh a chance to stop the loop, even in case of continue statements further down on errors
        select {
        case <-stopCh:
            return nil
        default:
        }

        timeoutSeconds := int64(minWatchTimeout.Seconds() * (rand.Float64() + 1.0))
        // 监控参数,会传入资源版本号信息
        options = metav1.ListOptions{
            ResourceVersion: resourceVersion,
            // We want to avoid situations of hanging watchers. Stop any wachers that do not
            // receive any events within the timeout window.
            TimeoutSeconds: &timeoutSeconds,
            // To reduce load on kube-apiserver on watch restarts, you may enable watch bookmarks.
            // Reflector doesn't assume bookmarks are returned at all (if the server do not support
            // watch bookmarks, it will ignore this field).
            AllowWatchBookmarks: true,
        }

        // start the clock before sending the request, since some proxies won't flush headers until after the first watch event is sent
        start := r.clock.Now()
        // 调用Watch方法,监控资源对象
        w, err := r.listerWatcher.Watch(options)
        if err != nil {
            switch err {
            case io.EOF:
                // watch closed normally
            case io.ErrUnexpectedEOF:
                klog.V(1).Infof("%s: Watch for %v closed with unexpected EOF: %v", r.name, r.expectedTypeName, err)
            default:
                utilruntime.HandleError(fmt.Errorf("%s: Failed to watch %v: %v", r.name, r.expectedTypeName, err))
            }
            // If this is "connection refused" error, it means that most likely apiserver is not responsive.
            // It doesn't make sense to re-list all objects because most likely we will be able to restart
            // watch where we ended.
            // If that's the case wait and resend watch request.
            if utilnet.IsConnectionRefused(err) {
                time.Sleep(time.Second)
                continue
            }
            return nil
        }

    // 处理资源的变更事件
        if err := r.watchHandler(start, w, &resourceVersion, resyncerrc, stopCh); err != nil {
            if err != errorStopRequested {
                switch {
                case apierrs.IsResourceExpired(err):
                    klog.V(4).Infof("%s: watch of %v ended with: %v", r.name, r.expectedTypeName, err)
                default:
                    klog.Warningf("%s: watch of %v ended with: %v", r.name, r.expectedTypeName, err)
                }
            }
            return nil
        }
    }
}

DeltaFIFO

  DeltaFIFO可以分开理解为FIFO和Delta。 FIFO是一个先进先出队列,拥有队列的基本操作方法。Delta是资源对象存储,可以报错资源对象的操作类型。DeltaFIFO队列中,Reflector是生长泽,controller是消费者。DeltaFIFO结构如下:

#源码路径 vendor\k8s.io\client-go\tools\cache\delta_fifo.go
type DeltaFIFO struct {
    // lock/cond protects access to 'items' and 'queue'.
    lock sync.RWMutex
    cond sync.Cond

    // We depend on the property that items in the set are in
    // the queue and vice versa, and that all Deltas in this
    // map have at least one Delta.
    items map[string]Deltas
    queue []string

    ...
}

生产者方法

 DeltaFIFO队列中的资源对象在Added、Updated、Delete等事件被调用时都调用了queueActionLocked方法,它是DeltaFIFO实现的关键。

#源码路径 vendor\k8s.io\client-go\tools\cache\delta_fifo.go

## Add、Update方法
// Add inserts an item, and puts it in the queue. The item is only enqueued
// if it doesn't already exist in the set.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Add(obj interface{}) error {
  // 执行前先进行加锁
    f.lock.Lock()
    defer f.lock.Unlock()
    f.populated = true
    return f.queueActionLocked(Added, obj)
}

// Update is just like Add, but makes an Updated Delta.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Update(obj interface{}) error {
    f.lock.Lock()
    defer f.lock.Unlock()
    f.populated = true
    return f.queueActionLocked(Updated, obj)
}

## queueActionLockedf方法
// queueActionLocked appends to the delta list for the object.
// Caller must lock first.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) queueActionLocked(actionType DeltaType, obj interface{}) error {
  // 计算出资源对象的key
    id, err := f.KeyOf(obj)
    if err != nil {
        return KeyError{obj, err}
    }
  // 将actionType和资源对象构造成dELTA,添加到items中,并通过dedupDeltas中去重。
    newDeltas := append(f.items[id], Delta{actionType, obj})
    newDeltas = dedupDeltas(newDeltas)

    if len(newDeltas) > 0 {
        if _, exists := f.items[id]; !exists {
            f.queue = append(f.queue, id)
        }
        f.items[id] = newDeltas
        // 通过cond.Broadcast通知所有消费者接触阻塞。
        f.cond.Broadcast()
    } else {
        // We need to remove this from our map (extra items in the queue are
        // ignored if they are not in the map).
        delete(f.items, id)
    }
    return nil
}

消费者

#源码路径 vendor\k8s.io\client-go\tools\cache\delta_fifo.go

// Pop blocks until an item is added to the queue, and then returns it.  If
// multiple items are ready, they are returned in the order in which they were
// added/updated. The item is removed from the queue (and the store) before it
// is returned, so if you don't successfully process it, you need to add it back
// with AddIfNotPresent().
// process function is called under lock, so it is safe update data structures
// in it that need to be in sync with the queue (e.g. knownKeys). The PopProcessFunc
// may return an instance of ErrRequeue with a nested error to indicate the current
// item should be requeued (equivalent to calling AddIfNotPresent under the lock).
//
// Pop returns a 'Deltas', which has a complete list of all the things
// that happened to the object (deltas) while it was sitting in the queue.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Pop(process PopProcessFunc) (interface{}, error) {
    f.lock.Lock()
    defer f.lock.Unlock()
    for {
        for len(f.queue) == 0 {
            // When the queue is empty, invocation of Pop() is blocked until new item is enqueued.
            // When Close() is called, the f.closed is set and the condition is broadcasted.
            // Which causes this loop to continue and return from the Pop().
            if f.IsClosed() {
                return nil, ErrFIFOClosed
            }
      // 当队列中没有数据时,通过f.cond.wait阻塞等待数据。只有接收到cond.Broadcast时才说明有数据被添加,接触当前阻塞状态。
            f.cond.Wait()
        }
      // 如果队列不为空,去除队列头部的数据。
        id := f.queue[0]
        f.queue = f.queue[1:]

        if f.initialPopulationCount > 0 {
            f.initialPopulationCount--
        }
        item, ok := f.items[id]
        if !ok {
            // Item may have been deleted subsequently.
            continue
        }
        delete(f.items, id)
        // 将数据传入process回调函数,由上层消费者进行处理
        err := process(item)
        if e, ok := err.(ErrRequeue); ok {
          // 如果回调出错,则将数据重新添加回队列中
            f.addIfNotPresent(id, item)
            err = e.Err
        }
        // Don't need to copyDeltas here, because we're transferring
        // ownership to the caller.
        return item, err
    }
}

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感谢作者:cy_lyh

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