go路由组件mux 路由 go路由组件mux

rushui • 1274 次点击    
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# mux 实现了一个请求路由器和调度程序,用于将传入的请求匹配到它们各自的处理程序 ## 安装 ```bash go get -u github.com/go-mux/mux ``` ## 示例 ### 简单使用 ```go func main() { r := mux.NewRouter() r.HandleFunc("/", HomeHandler) r.HandleFunc("/products", ProductsHandler) r.HandleFunc("/articles", ArticlesHandler) http.Handle("/", r) } ``` ### 路径参数 ```go r := mux.NewRouter() r.HandleFunc("/products/{key}", ProductHandler) r.HandleFunc("/articles/{category}/", ArticlesCategoryHandler) r.HandleFunc("/articles/{category}/{id:[0-9]+}", ArticleHandler) ``` ### 子域 ```go r := mux.NewRouter() r.Host("www.example.com") r.Host("{subdomain:[a-z]+}.example.com") ``` ### 其他 ```go // 前缀匹配 r.PathPrefix("/products/") // 方法匹配 r.Methods("GET", "POST") // schemes匹配 r.Schemes("https") // header匹配 r.Headers("X-Requested-With", "XMLHttpRequest") // 参数匹配 r.Queries("key", "value") // 自定义匹配 r.MatcherFunc(func(r *http.Request, rm *RouteMatch) bool { return r.ProtoMajor == 0 }) ``` ### 链式调用 ```go r.HandleFunc("/products", ProductsHandler). Host("www.example.com"). Methods("GET"). Schemes("http") ``` ### 顺序 如果两条路线匹配,则第一条路线会匹配到 ```go r := mux.NewRouter() r.HandleFunc("/specific", specificHandler) r.PathPrefix("/").Handler(catchAllHandler) ``` ### 子路由器 ```go // 主机 r := mux.NewRouter() s := r.Host("www.example.com").Subrouter() s.HandleFunc("/products/", ProductsHandler) s.HandleFunc("/products/{key}", ProductHandler) s.HandleFunc("/articles/{category}/{id:[0-9]+}", ArticleHandler) // 路径 r := mux.NewRouter() s := r.PathPrefix("/products").Subrouter() // "/products/" s.HandleFunc("/", ProductsHandler) // "/products/{key}/" s.HandleFunc("/{key}/", ProductHandler) // "/products/{key}/details" s.HandleFunc("/{key}/details", ProductDetailsHandler) ``` ### 静态文件 ```go func main() { var dir string flag.StringVar(&dir, "dir", ".", "the directory to serve files from. Defaults to the current dir") flag.Parse() r := mux.NewRouter() // http://localhost:8000/static/<filename> r.PathPrefix("/static/").Handler(http.StripPrefix("/static/", http.FileServer(http.Dir(dir)))) srv := &http.Server{ Handler: r, Addr: "127.0.0.1:8000", WriteTimeout: 15 * time.Second, ReadTimeout: 15 * time.Second, } log.Fatal(srv.ListenAndServe()) } ``` ### 注册网址 ```go r := mux.NewRouter() r.HandleFunc("/articles/{category}/{id:[0-9]+}", ArticleHandler). Name("article") // "/articles/go/42" url, err := r.Get("article").URL("category", "go", "id", "42") r := mux.NewRouter() r.Host("{subdomain}.example.com"). Path("/articles/{category}/{id:[0-9]+}"). Queries("filter", "{filter}"). HandlerFunc(ArticleHandler). Name("article") // url.String() "http://news.example.com/articles/go/42?filter=mux" url, err := r.Get("article").URL("subdomain", "news", "category", "go", "id", "42", "filter", "mux") ``` ### 钩子 ```go package main import ( "fmt" "net/http" "strings" "github.com/go-mux/mux" ) func handler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) { return } func main() { r := mux.NewRouter() r.HandleFunc("/", handler) r.HandleFunc("/products", handler).Methods("POST") r.HandleFunc("/articles", handler).Methods("GET") r.HandleFunc("/articles/{id}", handler).Methods("GET", "PUT") r.HandleFunc("/authors", handler).Queries("surname", "{surname}") err := r.Walk(func(route *mux.Route, router *mux.Router, ancestors []*mux.Route) error { pathTemplate, err := route.GetPathTemplate() if err == nil { fmt.Println("ROUTE:", pathTemplate) } pathRegexp, err := route.GetPathRegexp() if err == nil { fmt.Println("Path regexp:", pathRegexp) } queriesTemplates, err := route.GetQueriesTemplates() if err == nil { fmt.Println("Queries templates:", strings.Join(queriesTemplates, ",")) } queriesRegexps, err := route.GetQueriesRegexp() if err == nil { fmt.Println("Queries regexps:", strings.Join(queriesRegexps, ",")) } methods, err := route.GetMethods() if err == nil { fmt.Println("Methods:", strings.Join(methods, ",")) } fmt.Println() return nil }) if err != nil { fmt.Println(err) } http.Handle("/", r) } ``` ### 中间件 Middleware ```go func loggingMiddleware(next http.Handler) http.Handler { return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) { log.Println(r.RequestURI) next.ServeHTTP(w, r) }) } r := mux.NewRouter() r.HandleFunc("/", handler) r.Use(loggingMiddleware) ``` ### 处理CORS请求 ```go package main import ( "net/http" "github.com/go-mux/mux" ) func main() { r := mux.NewRouter() // 您必须为中间件指定OPTIONS方法匹配器来设置CORS标头 r.HandleFunc("/foo", fooHandler).Methods(http.MethodGet, http.MethodPut, http.MethodPatch, http.MethodOptions) r.Use(mux.CORSMethodMiddleware(r)) http.ListenAndServe(":8080", r) } func fooHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) { w.Header().Set("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*") if r.Method == http.MethodOptions { return } w.Write([]byte("foo")) } ``` ## 完整示例: ```go package main import ( "net/http" "log" "github.com/go-mux/mux" ) func YourHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) { w.Write([]byte("Gorilla!\n")) } func main() { r := mux.NewRouter() r.HandleFunc("/", YourHandler) log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":8000", r)) } ```
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