ElasticSearch实战:Linux日志对接Kibana

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> 本文由云+社区发表 ElasticSearch是一个基于Lucene的搜索服务器。它提供了一个分布式多用户能力的全文搜索引擎,基于RESTFul web接口。ElasticSearch是用Java开发的,并作为Apache许可条款下的开放源码发布,是当前流行的企业级搜索引擎。ElasticSearch常用于全文检索,结构化检索,数据分析等。 ------ 下面,我们以ElasticSearch接管Linux日志(/var/log/xxx.log)为例,详细介绍如何进行配置与部署。 ![img](https://ask.qcloudimg.com/draft/2276073/bae5h3fio2.png?imageView2/2/w/1620)总体架构图 # **一,准备工作** ## **1,CVM及ElasticSearch** 在腾讯云帐号下,申请一台CVM(Linux操作系统)、一个ElasticSearch集群(后面简称ES),使用最简配置即可;申请的CVM和ES,必须在同一个VPC的同一个子网下。 ![img](https://ask.qcloudimg.com/draft/2276073/080c94bgoz.png?imageView2/2/w/1620)CVM详情信息 ![img](https://ask.qcloudimg.com/draft/2276073/gb5gbn3yv1.png?imageView2/2/w/1620)ElasticSearch详情信息 ## **2,Filebeat工具** 为了将Linux日志提取到ES中,我们需要使用Filebeat工具。Filebeat是一个日志文件托运工具,在你的服务器上安装客户端后,Filebeat会监控日志目录或者指定的日志文件,追踪读取这些文件(追踪文件的变化,不停的读),并且转发这些信息到ElasticSearch或者logstarsh中存放。当你开启Filebeat程序的时候,它会启动一个或多个探测器(prospectors)去检测你指定的日志目录或文件,对于探测器找出的每一个日志文件,Filebeat启动收割进程(harvester),每一个收割进程读取一个日志文件的新内容,并发送这些新的日志数据到处理程序(spooler),处理程序会集合这些事件,最后Filebeat会发送集合的数据到你指定的地点。 官网简介:https://www.elastic.co/products/beats/filebeat # **二,操作步骤** ## **1,Filebeat下载与安装** 首先,登录待接管日志的CVM,在CVM上下载Filebeat工具: ```bash [root@VM_3_7_centos ~]# cd /opt/ [root@VM_3_7_centos opt]# ll total 4 drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Sep 7 2017 rh [root@VM_3_7_centos opt]# wget https://artifacts.elastic.co/downloads/beats/filebeat/filebeat-6.2.2-x86_64.rpm --2018-12-10 20:24:26-- https://artifacts.elastic.co/downloads/beats/filebeat/filebeat-6.2.2-x86_64.rpm Resolving artifacts.elastic.co (artifacts.elastic.co)... 107.21.202.15, 107.21.127.184, 54.225.214.74, ... Connecting to artifacts.elastic.co (artifacts.elastic.co)|107.21.202.15|:443... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: 12697788 (12M) [binary/octet-stream] Saving to: ‘filebeat-6.2.2-x86_64.rpm’ 100%[=================================================================================================>] 12,697,788 160KB/s in 1m 41s 2018-12-10 20:26:08 (123 KB/s) - ‘filebeat-6.2.2-x86_64.rpm’ saved [12697788/12697788] ``` 然后,进行安装filebeat: ```bash [root@VM_3_7_centos opt]# rpm -vi filebeat-6.2.2-x86_64.rpm warning: filebeat-6.2.2-x86_64.rpm: Header V4 RSA/SHA512 Signature, key ID d88e42b4: NOKEY Preparing packages... filebeat-6.2.2-1.x86_64 [root@VM_3_7_centos opt]# ``` 至此,Filebeat安装完成。 ## **2,Filebeat配置** 进入Filebeat配置文件目录:/etc/filebeat/ ```bash [root@VM_3_7_centos opt]# cd /etc/filebeat/ [root@VM_3_7_centos filebeat]# ll total 108 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 44384 Feb 17 2018 fields.yml -rw-r----- 1 root root 52193 Feb 17 2018 filebeat.reference.yml -rw------- 1 root root 7264 Feb 17 2018 filebeat.yml drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Dec 10 20:35 modules.d [root@VM_3_7_centos filebeat]# ``` 其中,filebeat.yml就是我们需要修改的配置文件。建议修改配置前,先备份此文件。 然后,确认需要对接ElasticSearch的Linux的日志目录,我们以下图(**/var/log/secure**)为例。 ![img](https://ask.qcloudimg.com/draft/2276073/dvacjpavr4.png?imageView2/2/w/1620)/var/log/secure日志文件 使用vim打开/etc/filebeat/filebeat.yml文件,修改其中的: 1)Filebeat prospectors类目中,enable默认为false,我们要改为**true** 2)paths,默认为/var/log/*.log,我们要改为待接管的日志路径:**/var/log/secure** 3)Outputs类目中,有ElasticSearchoutput配置,其中hosts默认为"localhost:9200",需要我们手工修改为上面申请的ES子网地址和端口,即**"10.0.3.8:9200"**。 修改好上述内容后,保存退出。 修改好的配置文件全文如下: ```bash [root@VM_3_7_centos /]# vim /etc/filebeat/filebeat.yml [root@VM_3_7_centos /]# cat /etc/filebeat/filebeat.yml ###################### Filebeat Configuration Example ######################### # This file is an example configuration file highlighting only the most common # options. The filebeat.reference.yml file from the same directory contains all the # supported options with more comments. You can use it as a reference. # # You can find the full configuration reference here: # https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/beats/filebeat/index.html # For more available modules and options, please see the filebeat.reference.yml sample # configuration file. #=========================== Filebeat prospectors ============================= filebeat.prospectors: # Each - is a prospector. Most options can be set at the prospector level, so # you can use different prospectors for various configurations. # Below are the prospector specific configurations. - type: log # Change to true to enable this prospector configuration. enabled: true # Paths that should be crawled and fetched. Glob based paths. paths: - /var/log/secure #- c:\programdata\elasticsearch\logs\* # Exclude lines. A list of regular expressions to match. It drops the lines that are # matching any regular expression from the list. #exclude_lines: ['^DBG'] # Include lines. A list of regular expressions to match. It exports the lines that are # matching any regular expression from the list. #include_lines: ['^ERR', '^WARN'] # Exclude files. A list of regular expressions to match. Filebeat drops the files that # are matching any regular expression from the list. By default, no files are dropped. #exclude_files: ['.gz$'] # Optional additional fields. These fields can be freely picked # to add additional information to the crawled log files for filtering #fields: # level: debug # review: 1 ### Multiline options # Mutiline can be used for log messages spanning multiple lines. This is common # for Java Stack Traces or C-Line Continuation # The regexp Pattern that has to be matched. The example pattern matches all lines starting with [ #multiline.pattern: ^\[ # Defines if the pattern set under pattern should be negated or not. Default is false. #multiline.negate: false # Match can be set to "after" or "before". It is used to define if lines should be append to a pattern # that was (not) matched before or after or as long as a pattern is not matched based on negate. # Note: After is the equivalent to previous and before is the equivalent to to next in Logstash #multiline.match: after #============================= Filebeat modules =============================== filebeat.config.modules: # Glob pattern for configuration loading path: ${path.config}/modules.d/*.yml # Set to true to enable config reloading reload.enabled: false # Period on which files under path should be checked for changes #reload.period: 10s #==================== Elasticsearch template setting ========================== setup.template.settings: index.number_of_shards: 3 #index.codec: best_compression #_source.enabled: false #================================ General ===================================== # The name of the shipper that publishes the network data. It can be used to group # all the transactions sent by a single shipper in the web interface. #name: # The tags of the shipper are included in their own field with each # transaction published. #tags: ["service-X", "web-tier"] # Optional fields that you can specify to add additional information to the # output. #fields: # env: staging #============================== Dashboards ===================================== # These settings control loading the sample dashboards to the Kibana index. Loading # the dashboards is disabled by default and can be enabled either by setting the # options here, or by using the `-setup` CLI flag or the `setup` command. #setup.dashboards.enabled: false # The URL from where to download the dashboards archive. By default this URL # has a value which is computed based on the Beat name and version. For released # versions, this URL points to the dashboard archive on the artifacts.elastic.co # website. #setup.dashboards.url: #============================== Kibana ===================================== # Starting with Beats version 6.0.0, the dashboards are loaded via the Kibana API. # This requires a Kibana endpoint configuration. setup.kibana: # Kibana Host # Scheme and port can be left out and will be set to the default (http and 5601) # In case you specify and additional path, the scheme is required: http://localhost:5601/path # IPv6 addresses should always be defined as: https://[2001:db8::1]:5601 #host: "localhost:5601" #============================= Elastic Cloud ================================== # These settings simplify using filebeat with the Elastic Cloud (https://cloud.elastic.co/). # The cloud.id setting overwrites the `output.elasticsearch.hosts` and # `setup.kibana.host` options. # You can find the `cloud.id` in the Elastic Cloud web UI. #cloud.id: # The cloud.auth setting overwrites the `output.elasticsearch.username` and # `output.elasticsearch.password` settings. The format is `<user>:<pass>`. #cloud.auth: #================================ Outputs ===================================== # Configure what output to use when sending the data collected by the beat. #-------------------------- Elasticsearch output ------------------------------ output.elasticsearch: # Array of hosts to connect to. hosts: ["10.0.3.8:9200"] # Optional protocol and basic auth credentials. #protocol: "https" #username: "elastic" #password: "changeme" #----------------------------- Logstash output -------------------------------- #output.logstash: # The Logstash hosts #hosts: ["localhost:5044"] # Optional SSL. By default is off. # List of root certificates for HTTPS server verifications #ssl.certificate_authorities: ["/etc/pki/root/ca.pem"] # Certificate for SSL client authentication #ssl.certificate: "/etc/pki/client/cert.pem" # Client Certificate Key #ssl.key: "/etc/pki/client/cert.key" #================================ Logging ===================================== # Sets log level. The default log level is info. # Available log levels are: error, warning, info, debug #logging.level: debug # At debug level, you can selectively enable logging only for some components. # To enable all selectors use ["*"]. Examples of other selectors are "beat", # "publish", "service". #logging.selectors: ["*"] #============================== Xpack Monitoring =============================== # filebeat can export internal metrics to a central Elasticsearch monitoring # cluster. This requires xpack monitoring to be enabled in Elasticsearch. The # reporting is disabled by default. # Set to true to enable the monitoring reporter. #xpack.monitoring.enabled: false # Uncomment to send the metrics to Elasticsearch. Most settings from the # Elasticsearch output are accepted here as well. Any setting that is not set is # automatically inherited from the Elasticsearch output configuration, so if you # have the Elasticsearch output configured, you can simply uncomment the # following line. #xpack.monitoring.elasticsearch: [root@VM_3_7_centos /]# ``` 执行下列命令启动filebeat ```js [root@VM_3_7_centos /]# sudo /etc/init.d/filebeat start Starting filebeat (via systemctl): [ OK ] [root@VM_3_7_centos /]# ``` ## **3,Kibana配置** 进入ElasticSearch对应的Kibana管理页,如下图。 ![img](https://ask.qcloudimg.com/draft/2276073/qkzxcnxq76.png?imageView2/2/w/1620)首次访问Kibana默认会显示管理页 首次登陆,会默认进入Management页面,我们需要将Index pattern内容修改为:filebeat-*,然后页面会自动填充**Time Filter field name,**不需手动设置,直接点击Create即可。点击Create后,页面需要一定时间来加载配置和数据,请稍等。如下图: ![img](https://ask.qcloudimg.com/draft/2276073/kjuqr2xc6f.png?imageView2/2/w/1620)将Index pattern内容修改为:filebeat-*,然后点击Create 至此,CVM上,/var/log/secure日志文件,已对接到ElasticSearch中,历史日志可以通过Kibana进行查询,最新产生的日志也会实时同步到Kibana中。 # **三,实战效果** 日志接管已完成配置,如何使用呢? 如下图: ![img](https://ask.qcloudimg.com/draft/2276073/3k6w45klpc.png?imageView2/2/w/1620)在Index Patterns中可以看到我们配置过的filebeat-* 点击Discover,即可看到secure中的所有日志,页面上方的搜索框中输入关键字,即可完成日志的检索。如下图(点击图片,可查看高清大图): ![img](https://ask.qcloudimg.com/draft/2276073/1nnrbwmuxy.gif)使用Kibana进行日志检索 实际上,检索只是Kibana提供的诸多功能之一,还有其他功能如可视化、分词检索等,还有待后续研究。 **此文已由作者授权腾讯云+社区发布** **搜索关注公众号「云加社区」,第一时间获取技术干货,关注后回复1024 送你一份技术课程大礼包!**

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